Guyana is a country in South America, bordering Brazil, Venezuela and Suriname. Also to the north is the Atlantic Ocean. The population of this country is approx 7,95,000 with 2,14,970 square kilometers area. The official language is English, although many other languages are spoken. Ethnically 39% Indian, 24% African, 20% hybrid. In terms of religion, 62% are Christians, 24% are Hindus, 7% are Muslims, and 3% do not believe in any religion.

Article 32 of the Constitution of Guyana states that "It is the joint duty of the State, the society and every citizen to combat and prevent crime and other violations of the law and to take care of and protect public property." It is a wonderful provision to mention the responsibilities of everyone directly in the constitution like this. Beside that, according to the constitution, no one can vilify a person's religion or religious belief. There must be a right to criticize religion but it cannot be a right to verbally abuse.

The economic objectives are clarified in the constitution, In this, everyone will fearlessly try to fulfill their responsibilities. Everyone has the right to work as well as entertainment. There are initiatives to conserve clean air, fertile soil, clean water and a rich diversity of flora, fauna and ecosystems.

These are positive aspects. Now let's discuss the negative aspects.

The preamble to the Constitution reads "May God protect our people." Not everyone believes in religion. The constitution refers to part of the state's citizens as "Indigenous", which is strange. In fact, all people on earth are equal. Indigenous concept is discrimination for other citizens.​


 Constitution of Guyana


Admirable Articles of Guyana's Constitution

14. Goal of economic development

The goal of economic development includes the objective of creating, promoting and encouraging an economic system capable of achieving and maintaining sustainable competitive advantage in the context of a global competitive environment, by fostering entrepreneurship, individual and group initiative and creativity, and strategic alliances with domestic and global business partners in the private sector.


15. Further goal of economic development

The goal of economic development includes the objective of laying the material basis for the greatest possible satisfaction of the people's growing material, cultural and intellectual requirements, as well as the dynamically stable development of their personality, creativity, entrepreneurial skills, and cooperative relations in a plural society. The State shall intervene to mitigate any deleterious effects of competition on individuals or groups of individuals.


22. The right and the duty to work

1. Every citizen has the right to be rewarded according to the nature, quality and quantity of his or her work, to equal pay for equal work or work of equal value, and to just conditions of work.

2. Every citizen who is able to work has a duty to work.


23. Right to leisure

Every citizen has the right to rest, recreation and leisure. The State in co-operation with co-operatives, trade unions and other socio-economic organisations will guarantee this right by prescribing hours and conditions of work and by establishing holiday arrangements for workers, including a complex of cultural, educational and health institutions.


32. Duty to prevent crime and protect public property

It is the joint duty of the State, the society and every citizen to combat and prevent crime and other violations of the law and to take care of and protect public property.


33. Duty to defend State

It is the duty of every citizen to defend the State.


36. Land and the environment

The well-being for the nation depends upon preserving clean air, fertile soils, pure water and the rich diversity of plants, animals and eco-systems.


38A. Democratic state with a healthy economy

To ensure that Guyana is a democratic State with a healthy economy, the State shall-

a. facilitate the engagement of citizens in activities designed to achieve their sustainable livelihoods;

b. progressively remove the barriers that prohibit or limit the realisation of the potential for self-sustaining activities in such fields as agriculture, processing, manufacturing and artistic and information-based activities;

c. encourage and support the self-mobilisation of citizens: and

d. provide appropriate support to any group which is, or is claiming to be, under threat of marginalisation.


38F. Vilification of religion

No person's religion or religious belief shall be vilified.


38G. Public service to be free from political influence (Part of it)

4. In the discharge of his or her duties a public officer shall execute the lawful policies of the government.


149D. Equality of persons before the law (Part of it)

1. The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or equal protection and benefit of the law.

3. Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and freedoms guaranteed by or under this Constitution or any other law.


149J. The environment

1. Everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to his or her health or well-being.

2. The State shall protect the environment, for the benefit of present and future generations, through reasonable legislative and other measures designed to-

a. prevent pollution and ecological degradation;

b. promote conservation; and

c. secure sustainable development and use of natural resources while promoting justifiable economic and social development.

3. It shall not be an infringement of a person's rights under paragraph (1) if, by reason only of an allergic condition or other peculiarity, the environment is harmful to that person's health or well-being.


Facts of Guyana's Constitution

Preamble (Part of it)

May God protect our people.

149G. Indigenous peoples' right

Indigenous peoples shall have the right to the protection, preservation and promulgation of their languages, cultural heritage and way of life.

1. There are hereby established the following Commissions, the goals of which are to strengthen social justice and the rule of law-

a. the Human Rights Commission;

b. the Women and Gender Equality Commission;

c. the Indigenous Peoples' Commission;

d. the Rights of the Child Commission.

2. A Commission shall be independent, impartial, and shall discharge its functions fairly.

3. A Commission shall be funded by a direct charge upon the Consolidated Fund in accordance with article 222A.

212S. Indigenous Peoples' Commission

1. The Indigenous People s' Commission shall establish mechanisms to enhance the status of indigenous peoples and to respond to their legitimate demands and needs.

2. The Indigenous Peoples' Commission shall consist of persons of the categories referred to in sub-paragraphs (a) , (b) and (c) appointed by the President as follows-

a. not more than ten members nominated by entities, by a consensual mechanism determined by the National Assembly, after the entities are determined by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all elected members of the National Assembly;

b. three persons, at least one being a woman nominated by the Toshaos Council and two persons including one woman nominated by Amerindian organisations determined by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all elected members of the National Assembly; and

c. a member who shall be a nominee, without the right to vote, chosen by and from each of the following Commissions: the Human Rights Commission, Ethnic Relations Commission, Women and Gender Equality Commission and the Rights of the Child Commission.

212T. Functions of the Indigenous Peoples' Commission

In addition to the functions specified in article 212J (2) the functions of the Indigenous Peoples' Commission are to-

a. promote and protect the rights of the indigenous peoples;

b. raise awareness of the contribution of, and problems faced by, indigenous peoples;

c. promote empowerment of the indigenous peoples, especially with regard to the village council in the local government system and the scope and authority of the Council of Toshaos;

d. make recommendations on economic and education policies to advance the interest of the indigenous peoples;

e. make recommendations for the protection, preservation and promulgation of the cultural heritage and language of the indigenous peoples;

f. promote consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples especially with regard to their participation in national decision-making and other decisions that affect their lives;

g. recommend and promote training and technical assistance to support initiative by and for indigenous peoples;

h. educate employers and the public and make recommendations to improve employment practices related to indigenous peoples; and

i. monitor the need for and recommend where appropriate the establishment of mechanisms to provide counselling for indigenous peoples.