Egypt is an African country. Although an African country, ethnically almost all citizens are Arabs, not blacks. The national language is Egyptian Arabic. In the area of 10,10,408 sq km, the population is about 10,26,74,000.

There are some interesting provisions in the Egyptian constitution. According to Article 61, tissue and organ donation has been declared as a constitutional right especially during life and of course after death. The state is committed to establish a system to regulate organ donation and transplantation. Article 90 states that the State shall encourage donations to establish and patronize scientific, cultural, health, and social institutions and others and to ensure their independence. Its affairs will be governed by the conditions set by the person making the donation. Freedom of scientific research is recognized. Organ trafficking is prohibited, and no medical or scientific experiment for the purpose of improving the medical field can be carried out without the consent of participants.

Everyone is entitled to a social security system for a decent life. It is a crime not to provide proper treatment to the sick in case of emergency. Incitement to discrimination and hatred is a crime punishable by law.

No Member of Parliament shall purchase or lease state property during his or her term, directly or through anyone. Nor will he or she enter into an agreement with the state to lease, sell or exchange any part of his own property. As well as become a seller, supplier, contractor to execute contracts with the state. A Member of Parliament is required to disclose his or her assets at the time of assuming office, at the time of discharge and at the end of each year. If someone receives cash or similar gifts as part of duties while serving as a Member of Parliament, it will be considered state property.

These are positive aspects. Now let's discuss the negative aspects. Egypt's constitution declares Egypt to be the heart of the world - which is probably ridiculous for anyone but Egyptians. The state religion, Islam, and the principles of Islamic law are the main sources of legislation. "Primary education" must be completed in order to be elected as a Member of Parliament. But if one cannot do it because of circumstances, will he or she not be able to lead? The President is again able to appoint a maximum of 5% of the members of Parliament. 

Constitution of Egypt


Admirable Articles of Egypt's Constitution

Article 17. Social security services

The state provides social security services.

All citizens who have no access to the social security system have the right to social security to ensure a decent life, if they are unable to support themselves and their families in the event of incapacity to work, old age or unemployment.

The state works to provide appropriate pensions to small farmers, agricultural workers, hunters and informal labor in accordance with the law.

Insurance and pension funds are private and enjoy all forms of protection afforded to public funds. Together with their returns, they are a right of their beneficiaries. They shall be invested in a safe manner and managed by an independent entity, in accordance with the law.

The state guarantees funds for insurance and pensions.


Article 18. Health care (Part of it)

Denying any form of medical treatment to any human in emergency or life-threatening situations is a crime.

The state commits to improving the conditions of physicians, nursing staff, and health sector workers, and achieving equity for them.

All health facilities and health related products, materials, and health-related means of advertisement are subject to state oversight. The state encourages the participation of the private and public sectors in providing health care services as per the law.


Article 46. Environment

Every individual has the right to live in a healthy, sound and balanced environment. Its protection is a national duty. The state is committed to taking the necessary measures to preserve it, avoid harming it, rationally use its natural resources to ensure that sustainable development is achieved, and guarantee the rights of future generations thereto.


Article 51. Human dignity

Dignity is a right for every person that may not be infringed upon. The state shall respect, guarantee and protect it.


Article 52. Torture

All forms of torture are a crime with no statute of limitations.


Article 53. Equality in public rights and duties

Citizens are equal before the law, possess equal rights and public duties, and may not be discriminated against on the basis of religion, belief, sex, origin, race, color, language, disability, social class, political or geographical affiliation, or for any other reason.


Discrimination and incitement to hate are crimes punishable by law.

The state shall take all necessary measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination, and the law shall regulate the establishment of an independent commission for this purpose.


Article 54. Personal freedom (Part of it)

Questioning of the person may only begin once his lawyer is present. If he has no lawyer, a lawyer will be appointed for him. Those with disabilities shall be provided all necessary aid, according to procedures stipulated in the law.


Article 57. Private life

Private life is inviolable, safeguarded and may not be infringed upon.

Telegraph, postal, and electronic correspondence, telephone calls, and other forms of communication are inviolable, their confidentiality is guaranteed and they may only be confiscated, examined or monitored by causal judicial order, for a limited period of time, and in cases specified by the law.

The state shall protect the rights of citizens to use all forms of public means of communication, which may not be arbitrarily disrupted, stopped or withheld from citizens, as regulated by the law.


Article 58. Inviolability of homes

Homes are inviolable. Except in cases of danger, or if a call for help is made, they may not be entered, searched, monitored or wiretapped except by causal judicial warrant specifying the place, time and purpose thereof. All of the above is to be conducted in cases specified by the law, and in the manner prescribed. Upon entering or searching homes, those inside shall be notified and informed of the warrant issued in this regard.


Article 59. Right to safety

Every person has the right to a secure life. The state shall provide security and reassurance for citizens, and all those residing within its territory.


Article 60. Inviolability of the human body

The human body is inviolable. Any assault, defilement or mutilation thereof is a crime punishable by law. Organ trafficking is forbidden, and no medical or scientific experiment may be performed thereon without the documented free consent of the subject, according to the established principles of the medical field as regulated by law.


Article 61. Tissue and organ donation

Donation of tissues and organs is a gift of life. Every human has the right to donate his body organs during his lifetime or after his death by virtue of a documented consent or will. The state commits to the establishment of a mechanism to regulate the rules for organ donation and transplant in accordance with the law.


Article 66. Freedom of research

Freedom of scientific research is guaranteed. The state shall sponsor researchers and inventors and protect and work to apply their innovations.


Article 73. Freedom of House

Citizens have the right to organize public meetings, marches, demonstrations and all forms of peaceful protest, while not carrying weapons of any type, upon providing notification as regulated by law.

The right to peaceful, private meetings is guaranteed, without the need for prior notification. Security forces may not to attend, monitor or eavesdrop on such gatherings.


Article 74. Freedom to form political parties

Citizens have the right to form political parties by notification as regulated by the law. No political activity may be exercised or political parties formed on the basis of religion, or discrimination based on sex, origin, sect or geographic location, nor may any activity be practiced that is hostile to democracy, secretive, or which possesses a military or quasi-military nature.

Parties may only dissolved by a judicial ruling.


Article 80. Rights of the child

A child is considered to be anyone who has not reached 18 years of age. Children have the right to be named and possess identification papers, have access to free compulsory vaccinations, health and family care or an alternative, basic nutrition, safe shelter, religious education, and emotional and cognitive development.

The state guarantees the rights of children who have disabilities, and ensures their rehabilitation and incorporation into society.

The state shall care for children and protect them from all forms of violence, abuse, mistreatment and commercial and sexual exploitation.

Every child is entitled to early education in a childhood center until the age of six. It is prohibited to employ children before they reach the age of having completed their primary education, and it is prohibited to employ them in jobs that expose them to risk.

The state shall establish a judicial system for child victims and witnesses. No child may be held criminally responsible or detained except in accordance with the law and the time frame specified therein. Legal aid shall be provided to children, and they shall be detained in appropriate locations separate from adult detention centers.

The state shall work to achieve children’s best interest in all measures taken with regards to them.


Article 81. Rights of the disabled

The state shall guarantee the health, economic, social, cultural, entertainment, sporting and education rights of dwarves and people with disabilities. The state shall provide work opportunities for such individuals, and allocate a percentage of these opportunities to them, in addition to equipping public utilities and their surrounding environment. The state guarantees their right to exercise political rights, and their integration with other citizens in order to achieve the principles of equality, justice and equal opportunities.


Article 82. Youth

The state guarantees the care of youth and young children, in addition to helping them discover their talents and developing their cultural, scientific, psychological, creative and physical abilities, encouraging them to engage in group and volunteer activity and enabling them to take part in public life.


Article 83. The elderly

The state shall guarantee the health, economic, social, cultural and entertainment rights of the elderly, provide them with appropriate pensions to ensure them a decent standard of living, and empower them to participate in public life. The state shall take into account the needs of the elderly while planning public utilities. It also encourages civil society organizations to participate in caring for the elderly.

All the foregoing takes place as organized by law.


Article 84. Sports

The state guarantees the right of everyone to practice physical sports. State institutions and society shall work to discover and sponsor gifted athletes and take necessary measures to encourage the practice of sport,.

The law shall regulate the affairs of sports and civil sports bodies in accordance with international standards, and how to settle sporting disputes.


Article 90. Charitable Endowment

The state shall encourage the charitable endowment system to establish and sponsor scientific, cultural, health, and social institutions and others and to ensure their independence. Its affairs shall be managed in accordance with the conditions set by the person who created the endowment. This will be regulated by law.


Article 109. Restrictions on economic activity, financial disclosure

No House of Representatives member may, throughout his tenure, whether in person or through an intermediary, purchase or rent any piece of state property, or any public-law legal persons, public sector companies, or the public business sector. Nor is he allowed to lease, sell or barter with the state any part of his own property, nor conclude a contract with the state as vendors, suppliers, contractors or others. Any such actions shall be deemed void.

A member must submit a financial disclosure upon taking office, upon leaving it and at the end of every year.

If, because of or in relation to his membership, he should receive cash or in-kind gifts, ownership thereof reverts to the state treasury.

The foregoing is organized by law.


Article 220. Central Bank

The Central Bank is responsible for developing and overseeing the implementation of monetary, credit, and banking polices, and for monitoring banks. It is exclusively entitled to issue banknotes. It maintains the safety of the monetary and banking system, and the stability of prices within the framework of the state's general political economic policy, in the manner organized by law.




Facts of Egypt's Constitution

Preamble (Part of it)

In the Name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Blessed with a unique location and history, the Arab nation of Egypt is the heart of the whole world. It is the meeting point of its civilizations and cultures and the crossroads of its maritime transportation and communications. It is the tip of Africa on the Mediterranean and the estuary of its greatest river: the Nile.

On its land, Moses grew up, the light of God appeared, and the message descended on Mount Sinai.

On its land, Egyptians welcomed Virgin Mary and her baby and offered up thousands of martyrs in defense of the Church of Jesus.

When the Seal of the Messengers Mohamed (Peace and Blessings Be Upon Him) was sent to all mankind to perfect the sublime morals, our hearts and minds were opened to the light of Islam. We were the best soldiers on Earth to fight for the cause of God, and we disseminated the message of truth and religious sciences across the world.

The July 23, 1952 revolution that was led by the leader Gamal Abdel Nasser and was embraced by the popular will achieved the dream of generations for evacuation and independence. As a result, Egypt affirmed its Arab allegiance, opened up to its African continent and Muslim world, supported liberation movements across continents, and took firm steps on the path of development and social justice. 


Article 1. Nature of the Republic (Part of it)

Egypt is part of the Arab nation and enhances its integration and unity. It is part of the Muslim world, belongs to the African continent, is proud of its Asian dimension, and contributes to building human civilization.


Article 2. Islam, Principles of Islamic Sharia

Islam is the religion of the state and Arabic is its official language. The principles of Islamic Sharia are the principle source of legislation.


Article 3. Christian and Jewish religious affairs

The principles of the laws of Egyptian Christians and Jews are the main source of laws regulating their personal status, religious affairs, and selection of spiritual leaders.


Article 7. Al-Azhar

Al-Azhar is an independent scientific Islamic institution, with exclusive competence over its own affairs. It is the main authority for religious sciences, and Islamic affairs. It is responsible for preaching Islam and disseminating the religious sciences and the Arabic language in Egypt and the world.

The state shall provide enough financial allocations to achieve its purposes.

Al-Azhar’s Grand Sheikh is independent and cannot be dismissed. The method of appointing the Grand Sheikh from among the members of the Council of Senior Scholars is to be determined by law.


Article 102. Composition

The House of Representatives is composed of no less than four hundred and fifty members elected by direct secret public ballot. At least one quarter of the seats shall be allocated to women.

A candidate for the membership of the House must be an Egyptian citizen, enjoying civil and political rights, a holder of at least a certificate of basic education, and no younger than 25 years old on the day that candidacy registration is opened.

Other candidacy requirements, the electoral system, and division of electoral constituencies shall be defined by law in a manner which observes fair representation of the population and governorates. Elections based on the plurality voting system or proportional list, or a combination of both at whatsoever ratio may be adopted.

The President of the Republic may appoint a number of members that does not exceed 5%. The method of their nomination is to be specified by law.


Article 110. Revoking membership

The membership of any member may only be revoked if a member has lost trust, status or any of the conditions for membership on the basis of which he was elected, or if the duties of membership have been violated.

The decision to revoke membership is issued by a two-thirds majority of the members of the House of Representatives.