Bangladesh is a South Asian country. 95% of population are Bengali. By religion, 90% are Muslim, 9% Hindu. At 1,48,560 square kilometers, the country has a population of about 170 million - the highest in the world in terms of density. The average population of the world is about 58 people per square kilometer, while in Bangladesh it is 1,144 people.

If anyone tries to suspend or repeal the constitution, or try to seize power illegally, the punishment is death. No one in the state will be discriminated against on the grounds of gender, place of birth, religion, caste etc. or deprived of state employment. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and forming association. Regardless of the actual situation, everyone has freedom of speech under Article 39 of the Constitution.

These are positive aspects. Now let's discuss the negative aspects.

The constitution does not recognize regional languages. The state language is Bengali. The state religion is Islam. In a simple way, Bangladesh is for "Bengali Muslim" citizens. What is even more bizarre is that according to Article 8 of the Constitution, Secularism is a basic principle of the state, as well as the state religion is Islam according to Article 2A. The two opposing clauses prevail simultaneously. The main objective is to capture all kinds of vote banks.

According to Article 70 of constitution, if a Member of Parliament votes against the party in Parliament, his membership will be canceled. 


 Constitution of Bangladesh


Admirable Articles of Bangladesh’s Constitution

7A. Offence of abrogation, suspension, etc. of the Constitution

  1. If any person, by show of force or use of force or by any other un-constitutional means-
    1. abrogates,  repeals or suspends or attempts or conspires to abrogate, repeal or  suspend this Constitution or any of its article; or
    2. subverts or  attempts or conspires to subvert the confidence, belief or reliance of  the citizens to this Constitution or any of this article,
  2. his such act shall be sedition and such person shall be guilty of sedition.
  3. If any person-
    1. abets or instigates any act mentioned in clause (1); or
    2. approves, condones, supports or ratifies such act,
  4. his such act shall also be the same offence.
  5. Any  person alleged to have committed the offence mentioned in this article  shall be sentenced with the highest punishment prescribed for other  offences by the existing laws. 


28. Discrimination on grounds of religion, etc.

1. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on ground only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

2. Women shall have equal rights with men in all spheres of the State and of public life.

3. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion,  race, caste, sex or place of birth be subjected to any disability,  liability, restriction or condition with regard to access to any place  of public entertainment or resort, or admission to any educational  institution.

4. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State  from making special provision in favour of women or children or for the  advancement of any backward section of citizens.

29. Equality of opportunity in public employment

1. There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in respect of employment or office in the service of the Republic.

2. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion,  race, caste, sex or place of birth, be ineligible for, or discriminated  against in respect of, any employment or office in the service of the  Republic.

3. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from-

a. making special provision in favour of any  backward section of citizens for the purpose of securing their adequate  representation in the service of the Republic;

b. giving effect to any law which makes provision  for reserving appointments relating to any religious or denominational  institution to persons of that religion or denomination;

c. reserving for members of one sex any class of  employment or office on the ground that it is considered by its nature  to be unsuited to members of the opposite sex.

32. Protection of right to life and personal liberty

No person shall be deprived of life or personal liberty save in accordance with law.

33. Safeguards as to arrest and detention

1. No person who is arrested shall be detained in  custody without being informed, as soon as may be of the grounds for  such arrest, nor shall he be denied the right to consult and be defended  by a legal practitioner of his choice. 

2. Every person who is arrested and detained in  custody shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period  of twenty four hours of such arrest, excluding the time necessary for  the journey from the place of arrest to the court of the magistrate, and  no such person shall be detained in custody beyond the said period  without the authority of a magistrate.

3. Nothing in clauses (1) and (2) shall apply to any person-

a. who for the time being is an enemy alien; or

b. who is arrested or detained under any law providing for preventive detention.

4. No law providing for preventive detention shall  authorise the detention of a person for a period exceeding six months  unless an Advisory Board consisting of three persons, of whom two shall  be persons who are, or have been, or are qualified to be appointed as,  Judges of the Supreme Court and the other shall be a person who is a  senior officer in the service of the Republic, has, after affording him  an opportunity of being heard in person, reported before the expiration  of the said period of six months that there is, in its opinion,  sufficient cause for such detention.

5. When any person is detained in pursuance of an  order made under any law providing for preventive detention, the  authority making the order shall, as soon as may be, communicate to such  person the grounds on which the order has been made, and shall afford  him the earliest opportunity of making a representation against the  order:

Provided that the authority making any such order may refuse to  disclose facts which such authority considers to be against the public  interest to disclose.

6. Parliament may be law prescribe the procedure to be followed by an Advisory Board in an inquiry under clause.

37. Freedom of assembly

Every citizen shall have the right to assemble and to participate in  public meetings and processions peacefully and without arms, subject to  any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interests of public  order health.

38. Freedom of association

Every citizen shall have the right to form associations or unions,  subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interests  of morality or public order:

Provided that no person shall have the right to form, or be a member of the said association or union, if-

a. it is formed for the purposes of destroying the religious, social and communal harmony among the citizens;

b. it is formed for the purposes of creating  discrimination among the citizens, on the ground of religion, race,  caste, sex, place of birth or language;

c. it is formed for the purposes of organizing  terrorist acts or militant activities against the State or the citizens  or any other country;

d. its formation and objects are inconsistent with the Constitution.

39. Freedom of thought and conscience, and of speech

1. Freedom of thought and conscience is guaranteed.

2. Subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by  law in the interests of the security of the State, friendly relations  with foreign states, public order, decency or morality, or in relation  to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence-

a. the right of every citizen of freedom of speech and expression; and

b. freedom of the press

are guaranteed.

41. Freedom of religion

1. Subject to law, public order and morality-

a. every citizen has the right to profess, practice or propagate any religion;

b. every religious community or denomination has the right to establish, maintain and manage its religious institutions.

2. No person attending any educational institution  shall be required to receive religious instruction, or to take part in  or to attend any religious ceremony or worship, if that instruction,  ceremony or worship relates to a religion other than his own.




Facts of Bangladesh’s Constitution

2A. The state religion

The state religion of the Republic is Islam, but the  State shall ensure equal status and equal right in the practice of the  Hindu, Buddhist, Christian and other religions.

3. The state language

The state language of the Republic is Bangla.

4A. Portrait of the Father of the Nation

The Portrait of the Father of the Nation,  Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman shall be preserved and displayed at  the offices of the President, the Prime Minister, the Speaker and the  Chief Justice and in head and branch offices of all government and  semi-government offices, autonomous bodies, statutory public  authorities, government and non-government educational institutions,  embassies and missions of Bangladesh abroad.

9. Nationalism

The unity and solidarity of the Bangalee nation,  which, deriving its identity from its language and culture, attained  sovereign and independent Bangladesh through a united and determined  struggle in the war of independence, shall be the basis of Bangalee nationalism.

69. Penalty for member sitting or voting before taking oath

If a person sits or votes as a member of Parliament before he makes  or subscribes the oath or affirmation in accordance with this  Constitution, or when he knows that he is not qualified or is  disqualified for membership thereof, he shall be liable in respect of  each day on which he so sits or votes to a penalty of one thousand taka  to be recovered as a debt due to the Republic.

70. Vacation of seat on resignation, etc.

  1. A person elected as a member of Parliament at an  election at which he was nominated as a candidate by a political party  shall vacate his seat if he-
    1. resigns from that party; or
    2. votes in Parliament against the party;
  2. but shall not thereby be disqualified for subsequent election as a member of Parliament.