Bahrain is a country located in the Middle East. About 47% of them are Bahraini. 43% Asian, 5% other Arabs etc. 80% follow Islam. 14% Christian, 10% Hindu, 2% Buddhist, less than 1% Jewish. The official language is Arabic.

According to the constitution, the state provides extensive encouragement in science and related research. Education is free and compulsory. Health and preventive measures will be ensured for every citizen. All natural resources are also considered as resources. Taxes will not be levied on low income citizens. In reality, whatever the situation is, according to the constitution, everyone is guaranteed equal rights irrespective of gender, language and religion. Everyone has the right to assemble at their own place without permission or prior notice. Whatever the real situation is, according to the constitution, the legislative, the executive and the judiciary are separate.

These are positive aspects. Now let's discuss the negative aspects.

Whatever the constitution says, in reality Bahrain is a monarchy. Technically all power is in the hands of the king. And the current Prime Minister is also his son. According to the constitution, the king is the "Protector of Islam", and thus all opposition movements are suppressed. Whoever opposes the monarchy will be the enemy of Islam. The state religion is Islam, and the main source of law is Islamic Sharia law. According to the constitution, Bahrain is an "Arab state", and one of Bahrain's goals is to uphold the Arab brotherhood. The members of the legislature have to swear, "I swear by Almighty God that I shall be loyal to the country and the King ...". 


 Constitution of Bahrain


Admirable Articles of Bahrain’s Constitution

Article 7 (Part of it)

a. The State sponsors the sciences, humanities and the arts, and encourages scientific research.  The State also guarantees educational and cultural services to its  citizens. Education is compulsory and free in the early stages as  specified and provided by law. The necessary plan to combat illiteracy  is laid down by law.

c. Individuals and bodies may establish private  schools and universities under the supervision of the state and in  accordance with the law.

Article 8

a. Every citizen is entitled to health care. The  State cares for public health and the State ensures the means of  prevention and treatment by establishing a variety of hospitals and  health care institutions.

b. Individuals and bodies may establish private  hospitals, clinics or treatment centers under the supervision of the  State in accordance with the law.

Article 9 (Part of it)

e. The relationship between the owners of land and  real estate and their tenants shall be regulated by law on economic  principles while observing social justice.

f. The State shall endeavor to provide housing for citizens with limited income.

h. The State shall take the necessary measures for the protection of the environment and the conversation of wildlife.

Article 11

All natural wealth and resources are State property. The State shall  safeguard them and exploit them properly, while observing the  requirements of the security of the State and of the national economy.

Article 13

a. Work is the duty of every citizen, is required by  personal dignity and is dictated by the public good. Every citizen has  the right to work and to choose the type of work within the bounds of  public order and decency.

b. The State guarantees the provision of job opportunities for its citizens and the fairness of work conditions.

c. Compulsory work cannot be imposed on any person  except in the cases specified by law for national exigency and for a  fair consideration, or pursuant to a judicial ruling.

d. The law regulates the relationship between employees and employers on economic basis while observing social justice.

Article 15

a. Taxes and public costs are based on social justice, and their payment is a duty under the law.

b. The law regulates exemption of low incomes from taxes in order to ensure that a minimum standard of living is safeguarded.

Article 18

People are equal in human dignity, and citizens are equal before the  law in public rights and duties. There shall be no discrimination among  them on the basis of sex, origin, language, religion or creed.

Article 19

a. Personal freedom is guaranteed under the law.

b. A person cannot be arrested, detained, imprisoned  or searched, or his place of residence specified or his freedom of  residence or movement restricted, except under the provisions of the law  and under judicial supervision.

c. A person cannot be detained or imprisoned in  locations other than those designated in the prison regulations covered  by health and social care and subject to control by the judicial  authority.

d. No person shall be subjected to physical or  mental torture, or inducement, or undignified treatment, and the penalty  for so doing shall be specified by law. Any statement or confession  proved to have been made under torture, inducement, or such treatment,  or the threat thereof, shall be null and void.

Article 20

a. There shall be no crime and no punishment except  under a law, and punishment only for acts committed subsequent to the  effective date of the law providing for the same.

b. Punishment is personal.

c. An accused person is innocent until proved guilty  in a legal trial in which he is assured of the necessary guarantees to  exercise the right of defence at all stages of the investigation and  trial in accordance with the law.

d. It is forbidden to harm an accused person physically or mentally.

e. Every person accused of an offense must have lawyer to defend him with his consent.

f. The right to litigate is guaranteed under the law.

Article 25

Dwellings are inviolate. They cannot be entered or searched without  the permission of their occupants exception in cases of maximum  necessity as laid down and in the manner provided by law.

Article 26

The freedom of postal, telegraphic, telephonic and electronic  communication is safeguarded and its confidentiality is guaranteed.  Communications shall not be censored or their confidentiality breached  except in exigencies specified by law and in accordance with procedures  and under guarantees prescribed by law.

Article 28

a. Individuals are entitled to assemble privately  without a need for permission or prior notice, and no member of the  security forces may attend their private meetings.

b. Public meetings, parades and assemblies are  permitted under the rules and conditions laid down by law, but the  purposes and means of the meeting must be peaceful and must not be  prejudicial to public decency.

Article 32 (Part of it)

a. The system of government rests on a separation of the  legislative, executive and judicial authorities while maintaining  cooperation between them in accordance with the provisions of this  Constitution. None of the three authorities may assign all or part of  its powers stated in this Constitution. However, limited  legislative delegation for a particular period and specific subject(s)  is permissible, whereupon the powers shall be exercised in accordance  with the provisions of the Delegation Law.

Article 48 (Part of it)

b. While in charge of his Ministry, a Minister may  not assume any other public office, nor may he even indirectly practice a  profession or conduct industrial, commercial or financial business, nor  may he participate in contracts concluded by the Government or public  institutions, or combine his ministerial position with the membership of  the board of directors of any company except as a non-remunerated  Government representative. Also during this period the Minister may not  purchase or rent a State asset even by way of public auction, nor may he  lease, sell, or barter any of his assets to the State.

Article 59

Should a seat in the Chamber of Deputies become vacant prior to the  end of its term, for any reason, a replacement shall be elected within  two months of the Chamber’s announcement of the vacancy, and the new  member’s term shall last for the remaining term of his predecessor.

If the vacancy was caused by the resignation of the member,  that member may not nominate himself for the membership in the Chamber  during the legislative term in which he tendered his resignation.

If the vacancy occurs within the final six months of the term of the Chamber, a replacement shall not be elected.

Article 85

Should the two Chambers disagree over a bill twice, the National  Assembly, presided over by the President of the Chamber of Deputies,  shall convene for deliberation on the disputed clauses, and the bill  shall require the approval of the majority of the members of the  National Assembly present. If the bill is rejected in this  manner, it may not be submitted to the National Assembly again during  the same legislative session.

Article 109

a. The financial year shall be prescribed by law.

b. The Government prepares the draft budget,  including the state revenues and expenses, and presents it to the  Chamber of Deputies and the Consultative Council at least two months  prior to the end of the fiscal year. Following the submission of the  draft budget, the financial committees of either Chamber shall meet in a  joint session to discuss the draft budget with the Government,  following which each committee submits a separate report to its Chamber.  The draft budget is presented to the Chamber of Deputies for discussion  and then submitted to the Consultative Council for review in accordance  with the constitution, and amendments to the draft budget are possible  in agreement with the Government.

c. Discussion of the draft budget is on the basis of  the itemization contained therein. A budget may be prepared for two  years at the most, and none of the public revenues may be assigned to an  expense without a law.

d. The State general budget shall be promulgated by law.

e. If the Budget Law is not promulgated before the  beginning of the financial year, the previous budget shall be adheres to  until the law’s promulgation, and revenue shall be collected and  expenditure disbursed in accordance with the laws in force at the end of  that year.

f. Under no circumstances may the maximum estimates  of expenditure stated in the Budget Law and laws in amendment thereof be  exceeded.

Article 118

The law shall regulate cash and the banks, and shall regulate weight, measures and standards.

Facts of Bahrain’s Constitution

Preamble (Part of it)

In the name of God on high, and with His Blessing, and with His help, we Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Sovereign of the Kingdom of Bahrain, in line with our determination, certainty, faith, and awareness of our national, pan-Arab  and international Responsibilities; and in acknowledgment of our  obligations to God, our obligations to the homeland and the citizens,  and our commitment to fundamental principles and our responsibility to  Mankind. 

This amendment has taken account of all the lofty values and the  great human principles enshrined in the National Action Charter. These  values and principles confirm that the people of Bahrain surge ahead in  their triumphant march towards a bright future, God willing,  a future in which the efforts of all parties and individuals unite, and  the authorities in their new garb devote themselves to achieve the  hopes and aspirations under his tolerant rule, declaring their adherence  to Islam as a faith, a code of laws and a way of life, with their affiliation to the great Arab nation,  and their association with the Gulf Cooperation Council now and in the  future, and their striving for everything that will achieve justice,  good and peace for the whole of Mankind.

The amendments to the Constitution proceed from the premise that the noble people of Bahrain believe that Islam brings salvation in this world and the next, and that Islam  means neither inertness nor fanaticism but explicitly states that  wisdom is the goal of the believer wherever he finds it he should take  it, and that the Qur’an has been remiss in nothing.

In order to achieve this goal, it is essential that we listen and  look to the whole of the human heritage in both East and West, adopting  that which we consider to be beneficial and suitable and consistent with  our religion, values and traditions and is appropriate  to our circumstances, in the conviction that social and human systems  are not inflexible tools and instruments which can be moved unchanged  from place to place, but are messages conveyed to the mind, spirit and  conscience of man and are influenced by his reactions and their  circumstances of his society.

Thus these constitutional amendments are representative of the  advanced cultural thought of our beloved nation. They base our political  system on a constitutional monarchy founded on counsel [shura], which  in Islam is the highest model for governance, and on  the people’s participation in the exercise of power, which is the  foundation of modern political thought. The Ruler, with his  perspicacity, chooses certain experienced people to constitute the  Consultative Council (Majlis al-Shura), and the aware, free and loyal  people choose through elections those who make up the Chamber of  Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwwab), and thus the two chambers together achieve  the popular will represented by the National Assembly (Al-Majlis  al-Watani).

Article 1 (Part of it)

a. The Kingdom of Bahrain is fully sovereign, independent Islamic Arab State whose population is part of the Arab nation and whose territory is part of the great Arab homeland. Its sovereignty may not be assigned or any of its territory abandoned.

b. The regime of the Kingdom of Bahrain is that of a hereditary constitutional monarchy,  which has been handed down by the late Sheikh Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa  to his eldest son Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, the King. Then forward it will pass to his eldest son, one generation after another,  unless the King in his lifetime appoints a son other than his eldest  son as successor, in accordance with the provisions of the Decree on  inheritance stated in the following clause.

c. All provisions governing inheritance are  regulated by a special Royal Decree that will have a constitutional  character, and which can only be amended under the provisions of Article  120 of the Constitution.

f. This Constitution may be amended only partly, and in the manner provided herein.

Article 2

The religion of the State is Islam. The Islamic Shari’a is a principal source for legislation. The official language is Arabic.

Article 5

a. The family is the basis of society, deriving its strength from religion,  morality and love of the homeland. The law preserves its lawful entity,  strengthens its bonds and values, under its aegis extends protection to  mothers and children, tends the young and protects them from  exploitation and safeguards them against moral, bodily and spiritual  neglect. The State cares in particular for the physical, moral and  intellectual development of the young.

b. The State guarantees reconciling the duties of women towards the family  with their work in society, and their equality with men in political,  social, cultural, and economic spheres without breaching the provisions  of Islamic canon law (Shari’a).

c. The State guarantees the requisite social  security for its citizens in old age, sickness, disability, orphanhood,  widowhood or unemployment, and also provides them with social insurance  and health care services. It strives to safeguard them against  ignorance, fear and poverty.

d. Inheritance is a guaranteed right governed by the Islamic Shari’a.

Article 6

The State safeguards the Arab and Islamic heritage. It contributes to the advancement of human civilization and strives to strengthen the bonds between the Islamic countries, and to achieve the aspirations of the Arab nation for unity and progress.

Article 9 (Part of it)

a. Ownership, capital and work—in accordance with  the principles of Islamic justice— are basic constituents of the social  entity of the State and the national wealth, and are all individual  rights with a social function regulated by law.

Article 30

a. Peace is the objective of the State. The safety of the nation is part of the safety of the Arab homeland  as a whole, and its defense is a sacred duty of every citizen.  Performance of military service is an honor for citizens and is  regulated by law.

Article 33

a. The King is Head of State, and its nominal representative, and his person is inviolate. He is the loyal protector of the religion and the homeland, and the symbol of national unity.

Article 51

The National Assembly consists of two Chambers: the Consultative Council and the Chamber of Deputies.

Article 52

The Consultative Council consists of forty members appointed by Royal Decree, in accordance with the procedures, conditions, and the method defined by Royal Decree.

Article 78

Every member of the Consultative Council or the Chamber of Deputies  shall take the following oath in public session, prior to pursuing their  work in the Chamber or its committees:

“I swear by Almighty God that I shall be loyal to the country and the King,  shall respect the Constitution and the laws of the State, shall defend  the freedoms, interests and assets of the people, and shall perform my  work honestly and sincerely.”